The Implementation of Bassiouni’s Recommendations:

Much has been Achieved but National Reconciliation Remains an Issue

The Chairman of the National Commission for implementing Bassiouni’s recommendations Ali bin Saleh Al-Saleh presented his final report on 20 March 2012, in order to explain Government achievements regarding the implementation of Bassiouni’s recommendations. The implementation process was a difficult one and the timeframe was very limited, so it had to be extended for an extra few weeks. The Commission was also aware that its task requires following the implementation process closely alongside with the Government, and with a great deal of professionalism and transparency.

To what extent was the Commission able to execute this task?

The Chairman of the Commission answered this question during a press conference which was held immediately after the King received the Commission’s report: ‘15 recommendations were implemented in full out of a total of 26, which means more than half the recommendations; whereas 10 were implemented partially, and will remain a work in progress, as they require legislative and legal amendments, national reconciliation, educational and training programmes and compensation of those affected. One recommendation remains (No. 1722), which awaits the Court’s ruling. This relates to the death penalty, as no final sentence of death penalty has been issued yet.

It is understandable that full implementation of the recommendations will require more time and continuous tracking by both the Government and Parliament, which the King pointed to in his post-report speech.

The Commission’s report can be considered transparent, as it refers to each of Bassiouni’s recommendations, and then explains the work of the Commission and its efforts’ to implement them. This makes it is easy for the observer, as well as the average citizen to navigate the report and determine the extent of the implementation process.

It is clear from the report that the Chairman and members of the Commission exerted many efforts to produce this report; there is specific documentation of what has been done and the Commission’s proposals to the Government. The report also reflected a feeling of responsibility, as well as providing an accurate understanding of political and human rights problems.

Two points needs be explained before evaluating the report:

First: there is a clear harmony between the notions and methods of Bassiouni’s recommendations and the work on the one hand and proposals of the Commission on te other hand. Sometimes these proposals explain Bassiouni’s recommendations, and at others they are clear and precise in practical points which are in need of official approval. It is also obvious that the report did not explain whether the proposals presented to the Government by the Commission have been approved or not. However, it is possible to determine this, whether through the implementation itself or through the explanatory documents which accompany it. Moreover, at times these proposals were given Government approval, but need time to be implemented.

Second: most of the implemented recommenations were limited to the work of two committees concerned with human rights and legislations, as these encompass some of the most sensitive issues at hand, such as: breaches, detainees, expulsions from work or school, destruction of religious sites, trials, compensations, amending laws and regulations, and procedures regulating the work of security forces. Achievements in these issues, including the swift dealing with cases, and the cooperation of the Government with the Commission, are very clear.

With regards to the third committee responsible for the issue of national reconciliation, unfortunately it has failed to achieve its desired goal. However, the members of the Commission should not be exclusively blamed for this, because the issue has political dimensions beyond their ability to address. (It is possible to compare the Commission’s proposals with what has been achieved so far in this regard on pages 73 and 74 of the report). Perhaps it is not the appropriate time to address this issue, as it depends on the political will and desire of both the Government and the opposition. The issue of national reconciliation is one of the most crucial issues awaiting a solution, otherwise violence and security tensions will remain a threat to Bahrain’s stability. Indeed, this unresolved issue encourages more human rights breaches, for only in a stable political environment can human rights achievements and civil peace be protected.

The following are Bassiouni’s recommendations, actions of the Commission and Government achievements as stated in the report:

Recommendations and Implementations:

1716: To establish a national independent and impartial mechanism to determine the accountability of those in government who have committed unlawful or negligent acts resulting in the deaths, torture and mistreatment of civilians with a view to bringing legal and disciplinary action against such individuals, including those in the chain of command, military and civilian, who are found to be responsible under international standards of “superior responsibility”.

Members of the National Commission for
implementing Bassiouni’s recommendations
with the presence of the latter

Implementation actions taken:

The Attorney General issued a decision on 28 February 2012, to establish a special unit within public prosecution that is dedicated to the task of determining accountability, named (Special Investigations Unit). The features of this Unit would be as follow:

It would be led by a senior public prosecutor

It would be supplemented by experienced and independent criminal investigations and forensic experts.

The newly created Unit will have available to it a senior independent investigations counsellor (appointed by the Supreme Judicial Council), experienced in prosecuting and investigating crimes; this person will also be familiar with international standards on human rights investigations.

Guidance will be provided to this Unit on how to apply the principle of Superior Responsibility, which is already part of Bahraini law.

1717: To place the office of the Inspector General in MOI as a separate entity independent of the Ministry’s hierarchical control, whose tasks should include those of an internal “ombudsman’s office”, such as that which exists in many other countries. The new Inspector’s General’s office should be able to receive individual or organisational complaints, protect the safety and privacy of the complainants, carry out independent investigations and have the authority to conduct disciplinary and criminal proceedings as required by CAT, the ICCPR and the Bahrain Criminal Code to the Prosecutor General. The office should also promulgate and enforce police professional standards and carry out legal and sensitivity training for police officers.

A decree establishing both the ombudsman and Internal Affairs department was issued on 28 February 2012. The Decree.

On 30 January 2012, the Minister of Interior approved a new Code of Conduct for Bahraini Police. The Code of Conduct was drafted in consultation with legal and policing Western experts and is based on various international policing codes including Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials and the European Code of Police conduct. It adopts the ‘principles’- based approach, setting out the broad duties of police officers in relation to various aspects of their work, including the use of force, respect for human dignity and maintaining the rule of law. The Code constitutes a new social contract between the police and the Bahraini community.

The MOI has finalized a detailed Police Manual setting out the duties of police officers, including procedures to be followed when arresting persons. This manual will be issued to all security officers, and will be made part of training programme for police officers.

A new programme for human rights and legal training (on the procedures) has already begun for new police officers. Existing officers will also be trained in similar programme, which will now be enriched by the new Code and the Manual.

Technical assistance on this recommendation will be provided by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the UN office with the exclusive mandate for criminal justice. A formal agreement is currently being finalized with the UNODC to provide such assistance.

1718: To amend the decree establishing the NSA to ensure that the organisation is an intelligence gathering agency without law enforcement and arrest authorities. The NSA should also have an independent office of inspector general to carry out the same internal “ombudsman” functions mentioned above with respect to the MOI. Legislation should be adopted to provide that even during the application of a State of National Safety the arrest of persons should be in accordance with the Code of Criminal Procedure.

The implementation:

Issue of Decree Law No. 115 to limit the jurisdiction of the National Security Agency to intelligence gathering agency with no law enforcement and arrest powers.

Issue a decree on 28 February 2012 on the establishment of the Office of the Independent Inspector General and the Office of Professional Standards at the National Security Agency.

In response to the request of the National Commission dated 14 December 2011, the Cabinet approved on 8 January 2012 legislative amendments that ensure that arrests of persons will be in accordance with the ‘Code of Criminal Procedures even during the state of national safety’.

1719: To adopt legislative measures requiring the Attorney-General to investigate claims of torture and other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, and to use independent forensic experts. Such procedures should guarantee the safety of those raising such claims. Furthermore, the legislation should provide for remedies for any person claiming retribution for having raised a claim of torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

The implementation:

In response to the recommendation of the National Commission dated 14 December 2011, the Cabinet approved on 8 January 2012, legislative amendments that give the Attorney General the exclusive jurisdiction to investigate claims of torture and other forms of cruel in humane or degrading treatment or punishment, and protect any person claiming retribution for having raised a claim of torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

2) On 8 December 2011, it was announced that all cases of cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment have been transferred from the Ministry of Interior to the Attorney General’s Office.

Technical assistance regarding this recommendations will be provided by the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime , International Institute of Higher Studies in Criminal Science and American Bar Association Rule of Law Initiative.

1720: To make subject to review in ordinary courts all convictions and sentences rendered by the National Security Courts where fundamental principles of a fair trial, including prompt and full access to legal counsel and inadmissibility of coerced testimony, were not respected be subject to full review in the ordinary courts.

Implementation action taken:

All live cases are being reviewed in the civil courts to ensure the right for a fair trial has been complied with in cases before the National Safety Courts. Where final judgements were rendered in the National Safety Courts, and cannot be opened up on appeal, on 2 January 2012, the Supreme Judicial Council announced that it had formed a committee to review all such final judgments ( which number 30) to ensure that the accused was provided with his or her fair trial rights. Out of the 30 final judgments (involving 31 people). 13 people had already served their sentences and had been released. This left 18 accused still in detention. In relation to these 18 accused, the Supreme Judicial Council decided that:

- 6 would have their sentences reduced to time served, and could be released.

- Charges would be dropped against 5 accused of speech related activity. This resulted in 4 out of the 5 accused being released immediately, with one person still detained on other charges. All 5 of the accused would have their records expunged of the speech related charges.

- Convictions against 7 persons would be maintained.

1722: The Commission makes the following recommendations with regard to the use of force, arrest, treatment of persons in custody, detention and prosecution in connection with the freedom of expression, assembly and association. a. To conduct effective investigations in accordance with the Principles on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra-Legal, Arbitrary and Summary Executions of all the deaths that have been attributed to the security forces. Likewise, all allegations of torture and similar treatment be investigated by an independent and impartial body, following the Istanbul Principles. The investigation of both types of alleged violation should be capable of leading to the prosecution of the implicated individuals, both direct and at all levels of responsibility, with a view to ensuring that punishment be consistent with the gravity of the offence.


The Public Prosecutor is pursuing 107 cases of deaths, Torture and mistreatment of civilians, so far involving 48 officers (as the investigations progress more officers may become implicated).

1722 (b): To establish a standing independent body to examine all complaints of torture or ill-treatment, excessive use of force or other abuses at the hands of the authorities. The burden of proving that treatment complies with the prohibition of torture and other ill-treatment should be on the State.


A special unit was established within Public Prosecution, dedicated to the task of determining accountability.

1722 (c): To implement an extensive program of public order training for the public security forces, the NSA and the BDF, including their private security companies, in accordance with UN best practices. To ensure future compliance with the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement officials and Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, the security forces should be trained in the human rights dimensions of detention and interrogation, and in particular the obligation to refuse to participate in any actions involving torture and other prohibited ill-treatment.


- A new training programme on appropriate conduct by the Public Security officers is currently being implemented.

- The NSA commenced comprehensive training programme for its personnel on 22 January. It will include classes on fundamentals of human rights, appropriate professional conduct and how to interact with members of the public.

- The Bahrain Defence Force has similarly incorporated a Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, and the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials into training programme, as well as fundamentals of human rights.

1722 (d): To avoid detention without prompt access to lawyers and without access to the outside world for more than two or three days. In any event, all detention should be subject to effective monitoring by an independent body. Moreover, every person arrested should be given a copy of the arrest warrant and no person should be held incommunicado. Arrested persons should have access to their legal counsel and family visits in the same way as any person detained under the Bahrain Code of Criminal Procedure.


The Supreme Judicial Council issued a statute regulating visits and inspections of prisons, detention centres and places where precautionary measures are taken. The statute provided that the Chief of Justice of the Court of Appeals. The Chief Justice of the High Court, penalty enforcement judge, Juvenile Court judge, and the relevant members of Public Prosecution shall be assigned the task of visiting prisons, review incarceration orders and arrest warrants, and ascertain fair treatment, and health and social conditions of inmates. The statute provided rules of implementation of those tasks by inspecting prison cells, ascertaining proper health conditions, ensuring that inmates are properly classified and segregated, and that each category of inmates is treated commensurate with the status of the category, in addition to inspecting food and clothing of inmates, inspecting of work areas of convicts who are carrying out sentences with labor, and ensuring that convicts are working in proper environment under suitable conditions, talking to inmates, listening to their grievances, and examining any complaints they have, and in particular abuse related complaints, and taking immediate legal action to resolve them. The office of the Prosecutor General shall be notified of violations or comments found during inspection. It shall also be ascertained that no one is illegaly imprisoned , and that Persecution General Orders and court sentences are being carried out as stated.

The Commission reviewed and commented on the final report of the Foreign Affairs, Defence and National Security Committee of the Shura Council, along with the draft law of reform and rehabilitation institutions.

The Commission also reviewed – upon its request- the Ministerial Order issued by H.E. Minister of Interior on 22 December 2011, directing the Inspector General to take all necessary steps to guarantee the rights of the accused. Including the appointment of lawyer of his or her choice, allowing family visits in accordance with the Law of Criminal Procedures and introducing an arrest warrant.

The Ministry of Interior issued signed a memorandum of understanding with the International Red Cross Society on 8 December 2011. The International Red Cross Society will visit all detention centres and will provide the Ministry of Interior advice on and assistance in these reform efforts.

1722 (e): The Commission recommends that the GoB establish urgently, and implement vigorously, a programme for the integration into the security forces of personnel from all the communities in Bahrain.


The Commission asked the relevant authourities a number of questions as follows: how many persons were actually hired? In which governorates were they appointed? Will the recruitment be limited to community police only, or will it extend to include other security sectors? The Commission requested information on action taken and to be taken in the future. It also found that the implementation on this recommendation required a clear and specific programme including the assimilation of persons from all sects in various security agency, and not in the community Police only. This should also be done by adopting transparent process and in accordance with specified time schedule.

The Ministry of Interior commenced implementation of a plan to recruit 500 Bahraini men and women from all sects and in all governorates to join the community Police , subject to satisfaction of recruitment conditions.

1722 (f): To train the judiciary and prosecutorial personnel on the need to ensure that their activities contribute to the prevention and eradication of torture and ill- treatment.


The Government of Bahrain has agreed to implement this recommendation through a training programme developed by International Institute of Higher Studies in Criminal Sciences in Italy.

The Commission was provided with a copy of the training programme developed to implement this recommendation in collaboration with the German Foundation for International Legal Cooperation, American Bar Association, the International Institute of Higher Studies in Criminal Sciences and the University of Nottingham in the UK.

1722 (g): There should be audiovisual recording of all official interviews with detained persons.


Members the National Commission during a meeting

On 22 December 2012, The Minister of Interior ordered that all steps be taken (including ordering the purchase of the relevant equipment) to enable the audiovisual recording of all officials interviews with suspects, witnesses or detained persons.

On 5 January 2012, the Ministry of Interior approved a detailed plan for the installation of audiovisual equipment, including architectural drawings. The first police sation to be fitted with the equipment will be in Hoora. Audiovisual equipment will be fitted in 33 interrogation rooms within two months. On 28 Feruary 2011, the Attorney General confirmed that the Public Prosecution office will be supplied with the required audiovisual recording.

1722 (h): To review convictions and commute sentences of all persons charged with offences involving political expression, not consisting of advocacy of violence, or, as the case may be, to drop outstanding charges against them.


On 24 December 2011, the attorney General confirmed that all charges relating to freedom of expression will be dropped, with cases only being pursued against those persons accused of violent crime. This decision benefits 334 people. On 2 January 2012, the Supreme Judicial Council announced that a committee of civilian judges will review all convictions with a view to commute sentences of all persons convicted of offences involving freedom of expression, not violence incitement.

1722 (i): To commute the death sentence imposed for murder arising out of the events of February/March 2011, in the light of the preference of Article 6 of the ICCPR for the abolition of the death penalty and the concerns regarding the fairness of trials conducted by the National Safety Court.


At the time of writing this report, as no final death sentences has been passed, this recommendation was inapplicable.

1722 (j): To compensate and provide remedies for the families of the deceased victims in a manner that is commensurate with the gravity of their loss.


Decree 13 of 2012 was issued on 26 January 2012, on the creation of a national victims’ compensations fund which will be managed by a new committee composed of five individuals appointed by the Supreme Judicial Council. This Committee will receive and consider requests for compensation. It is empowered to award whatever form of redress fit. It may therefore award financial compensation, or order that a formal apology be offered to the victim, or require that steps are taken by the relevant body to ensure that the abuse does not occur again.

The Supreme Judicial Council announced on 27 February 2012, the establishment of Special Compensation Courts, these courts will expedite the conclusion of such claims for compensation.

The Ministry of Justice and Islamic Affairs launched the ‘civil Settlement Initiatives’. Under this imitative applicants can settle their claims in a consensual manner.

1722 (k): To compensate and provide remedies for all victims of torture, ill-treatment or prolonged incommunicado detention. In this connection, the Commission welcomes the Royal Decree Law No. 30 of 2011, for the establishment of the National Fund for the Reparation of Victims on 22 September 2011.


(see the implementation of recommendation K)

1723 (a): The Commission makes the following recommendations with regard to demolition of religious structures, termination of employees of public and private sectors, dismissal of students and termination of their scholarships .a. To ensure that the remaining dismissed employees have not been dismissed because of the exercise of their right to freedom of expression, opinion, association or assembly.


As stated by the Civil Service Bureau, 179 of 180 dismissed workers have been reinstated effective as of 1 January 2012. The remaining employee was not reinstated based on a final court decision which was made before the issue of the Government’s instructions to reinstate all dismissed.

6 of the workers of the University of Bahrain: refused to return their jobs for unknown reason. As for the 19 dismissed faculty members, 17 returned to their jobs, while two did not return due to their travel out of Bahrain.

Private Sector: As stated by the Ministry of Labour, 1893 of 2462 dismissed cases reviewed by the Government were settled. 336 workers (including retirees) were hired by other companies in jobs of equal pay and benefits. Another 139 workers are still awaiting employment through the efforts of the Ministry of Labour. The Commission continues to follow up all cases related to this issue.

1723 (b): To use all its powers to ensure that public corporations and other employers who dismissed employees for failure to appear for work at the time of the demonstrations treat them in a way that is at least equal to that provided by the GoB to civil servants.


The Government of Bahrain expended intensive efforts to reinstate dismissed private sector workers, resulting in the settlement of 93% of cases of public enterprise, and 76% of all remaining workers remain and are in the process of being reinstated. (see the implementation of recommendation 1723 (a)

1723 (c): To reinstate all students who have not been criminally charged with an act of violence and to put in place a procedure whereby students who were expelled on legitimate grounds may apply for reinstatement after a reasonable period of time, and to adopt clear and fair standards for disciplinary measures against students and to ensure that they are applied in a fair and impartial manner.


All students that have not been convicted with acts of violence have been reinstated. Students charged but not convicted have also been reinstated. If students are convicted, both the University of Bahrain and the Bahrain polytechnic will have procedures in place to facilitate their readmission after a reasonable period of time. As stated by the polytechnic, 54 expelled students were readmitted, while 8 declined due to their study abroad. None of the academia or administration staff were dismissed. University of Bahrain has taken necessary actions to amend its bylaws ( to include investigation’s rules and procedures) in compliance with international standards. The bylaws will be reviewed by the UNESCO experts.

1723 (d): To follow up on the statement by HM King Hamad to the effect that the GoB will consider rebuilding, at its expense, some of the demolished religious structures in accordance with administrative regulations. The Commission welcomes the GoB addressing this question at the earliest possible time.


On 12 January 2012, the Government announced that 12 mosques would be built. Construction work has already begun on 5 which had both a royal decree and a building permit. Construction on the remaining 7 sites will begin very shortly. The status of remaining sites is under review pending taking required legal procedures

The Jaafari Endowments Administration, in coordination with the Ministry of Justice, Islamic Affairs and Endowments, Ministry of Municipalities Affair and Urban Planning, Ministry of Works, and Survey and Land Registration Bureau aims to complete the legal, administrative and technical requirements for issuance of title deeds of all mosques and houses of worship, as well as for issuance of building permits, resolution of overlapping border lines of properties with some mosques and houses of worship, in preparation for their reconstruction in accordance with Royal directive.

1724 (a): The Commission makes the following recommendations with regard to media incitement issues: a) To consider relaxing censorship and allowing the opposition greater access to television broadcasts, radio broadcasts and print media. The continuing failure to provide opposition groups with an adequate voice in the national media risks further polarising the political and ethnic divide.


The Commission approved a number of recommendations and wrote to the Government concerning those recommendations. They are as follows:

Assigning the Media Affairs Authority to develop a national media strategy based on consolidating common national values and calling for reconciliation in all aspects which contribute to the interest and development of the country.

Adopting a fair, professional and balanced media policy towards the opposition, by ensuring that the media adopts points of view related to expediting reform at the legislative and executive levels, and catering for more of the living requirements of citizens. The official media organizations should announce the programmes to gain the confidence of citizens. This cannot be done without allowing all the political and social forces to appear in the official local media.

Diagnosing and remedying any government discrepancies towards citizens through television and radio programmes.

Covering seminars and events organized by political associations, focusing on their content in the media, and addressing them objectively. This would give all parties the responsibility of addressing those issues, provided that such actions are in compliance with Bahrain’s Constitution and applicable laws.

Qualifying media personnel to gain skills commensurate with international standards, in order to create specialized media expertise, focusing in the coming period on personnel concerned with political and social affairs to ensure their neutrality and best performance.

To stop all actions which could incite feuds and conflicts in official media.

To accelerate the issuing of laws that regulates audio and visual printing and publishing industry, both traditional and electronic, to consolidate the constitutional principle guaranteeing the freedom of expression, without prejudice to the unity of the people, and without inciting sectarian division, taking into consideration the events which took place in Bahrain and resulted in the existing sectarian prejudice, in which information and social media played a role.

The Commission was informed at the time that the Information Affairs Authority have taken the initiative and conducted advanced discussions with international experts from France to assist in the drafting of proposals for implementing this recommendation. The Commission also wrote to the Government requesting information on action taken to diagnose and remedy any remissness on the part of the state towards citizens in television and radio programs. Moreover, the Commission recommended the easing of censorship on the Internet.

Implementation Actions Taken

The Information Affairs Authority, in consultation with a team of French experts, has set out a detailed plan on the implementation of this recommendation. The plan includes the creation of a Higher Media Board to monitor and sanction any content that incites hatred. It also signed a memorandum of understanding with the Management Consulting Centre of Excellence to prepare a Media code of honour for Bahrain Radio and TV, to ensure the respect of a media code of conduct, within a framework of pluralism, neutrality, credibility, rule of law, and preserving national unity. The IAA has already signed training contracts with international media outlets (BBC and Radio France). The Government of Bahrain has also agreed to the establishment of a high level education institute to train future journalists and other communication experts, as well as the establishment of an integrated media city to attract Arab and international radio and television media companies, and to develop the media in collaboration with the private sector, and pave the way for the establishment of private satellite channels.

1724 (b): To establish professional standards for the media and other forms of publications that contain an ethical code and an enforcement mechanism, designed to uphold ethical and professional standards in order to avoid incitement to hatred, violence and intolerance, without prejudice to internationally protected rights of freedom of expression.


Urging the Bahrain Journalists Association to reconsider the media code of honour to address the national reconciliation phase, in order to encourage writers to promote public opinion calling for reconciliation and tolerance and rejecting division and extremism, emphasising the necessity of compliance by all journalists.

To emphasize joint causes which consolidate national unity and call for sectarian tolerance, shedding more light on such causes in all programs and reconciling differences.

To reorganize official media agencies, and attract information and media talent capable of building a media organization to international standards in this field.

Implementation actions include a national plan for social reconciliation developed by the Ministry of Human Rights and Social Development and a Memorandum of Understanding signed between the Ministry of Education and UNESCO in response to Recommendation 1725, Paragraph (A).

1724 (c): To undertake appropriate measures including legislative measures to prevent incitement to violence, hatred, sectarianism and other forms of incitement which lead to the violation of internationally protected human rights, irrespective of whether the source is public or private.

Implementation: The Government is working with several international experts in human rights to draft a legislation criminalizing violations of Article 20 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

1725 (a): To develop educational programs at the primary, secondary, high school and university levels to promote religious, political and other forms of tolerance, as well as to promote human rights and the rule of law.


To ensure the development of education programmes at the elementary, secondary and university level, aimed at promoting religious, political and other forms of tolerance.

To Legislate regulations aimed at safeguarding the sanctity of educational and academic institutions as required by international laws.

To Reconsider citizenship and social education curricula at all educational levels, and the assignment of a panel of qualified education experts to develop and issue proper educational curricula founded on good and mature citizenship.

To Activatethe parents’ committees at schools, and to organize periodic events and meetings for parents to serve as a means to bring families closer together.

To Develope rehabilitation programmes for the education sector based on international standards.

To Issue of a code of conduct to regulate professional standards for education and regulate their relationships with the components of society.

Assignment of the Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs in collaboration with the Ministry of Education to reformulate the Islamic education curricula for the three basic levels of education.

To Call for educational curricula in all religious institutes and schools to incorporate the values of pluralism and coexistence.

to Work with civil society organizations to restore the local Bahraini character.

The Ministry of Education has begun reforming curricula since November 2011, held various workshops on human rights for children in December and January 2012, and in February intends to introduce an intensive training program for teachers on education for human rights. The Ministry of Education has also proposed compulsory classes in human rights and the rule of Law at the University of Bahrain, and signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the UNESCO.

1725 (b): In general, the Commission recommends to the GoB the development of a national reconciliation programme that addresses the grievances of groups which are, or perceive themselves, to be deprived of equal political, social and economic rights and benefits across all segments of Bahrain’s population.

Workings of the Commission and Implementation:

The Commission recommended developing a reconciliation process addressing political, social and economic aspects, and to be supported of international expertise in this field, taking into consideration the principles of human rights and constitutional principles. The Commission also met with Mr. Mark Muller of Inter Mediate United Kingdom, and discussed what the visiting delegation could offer in terms of experience in national reconciliation in other countries. The Commission also emphasizes that the implemented recommendations, such as the reinstatement of dismissed employees, reconstruction of mosques and compensations to victims and their families promotes national reconciliation. The National Reconciliation Plan developed by the Ministry of Human Rights and Social Development, which includes the formation of a committee of all ministries to oversee the plan, and to provide US $500,000 to Civil Society Organizations to contribute to National Reconciliation programmes and other activities, is considered to be a step in the direction of national reconciliation.